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|814||Carthage founded by Phoenician colonists? (traditional date)|
|753||Rome founded by unified Latin tribes? (traditional date)|
|734||Syracuse founded by Greek colonists from Corinth? (traditional date)|
|306||Birth of Hiero, king of Syracuse?|
|289||Reign of Hiketas, tyrant of Syracuse, begins.|
|287||BIRTH OF ARCHIMEDES ?|
|279||Reign of Hiketas ends.|
|278||Pyrrhos, king of Greek city of Epirus, rules over Syracuse and the rest of Greek Sicily. (See Plutarch's Life of Pyrrhos.)|
|276||Pyrrhos leaves Sicily.|
Hiero executes military takeover of Syracuse.|
Hiero marries Philistis, daughter of Leptines, influential Syracusan?
|270||Birth of Hiero's son Gelo?|
|268||Birth of Marcellus, consul of Rome and conqueror of Syracuse. (See Plutarch's Life of Marcellus.)|
|265||Hiero defeats Mamertines (Italic mercenaries) and is declared king of Syracuse.|
|264||Beginning of First Punic War for control of Sicily. Syracuse initially allied with Carthage against Rome.|
|263||Hiero signs peace treaty with Rome after Romans threaten Syracuse.|
|247||Birth of Hannibal, Carthaginian general.|
|241||End of First Punic War. Rome gains control of all of Sicily outside of a small area surrounding Syracuse.|
|240||Gelo begins co-rule with Hiero?|
|230||Birth of Gelo's son Hieronymos.|
Beginning of Second Punic War.|
Hannibal crosses the Alps and invades Italy.
Hannibal defeats Romans at Cannae.|
Death of Gelo (at age 54?)
Death of Hiero (at age 91?)|
Hieronymos assumes throne of Syracuse (at age 15).
Syracuse switches allegiance from Rome to Carthage.
Hieronymos assassinated at Leontini, Syracuse's Greek ally (at age 16).|
Adranodoros (son-in-law of Hiero) and Themistos (son-in-law of Gelo) assassinated in Syracuse.
Five female members of Hiero's family put to death by a pro-Roman assembly.
Marcellus captures Leontini.
Hannibal's agents, Hippokrates and Epikydes, assume control of Syracuse.
Marcellus attacks Syracuse, but is defeated by Archimedes' military machines.|
Marcellus begins blockade of Syracuse.
Syracuse captured and looted by Romans.|
DEATH OF ARCHIMEDES (at age 75?) during sack of Syracuse.
|208||Marcellus killed by Hannibal's forces in a minor skirmish (at age 60). (See Plutarch's Life of Marcellus.)|
|201||End of Second Punic War. Rome gains control of all Carthaginian territory outside of Africa.|
|183||Death of Hannibal (at age 64). He commits suicide to prevent capture by Roman forces.|
|146||Carthage is utterly destroyed at the end of Third Punic War, which began in 149 BC.|
|75||Cicero discovers and restores Archimedes' tomb.|